Category: How To’s

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 DISA STIG

DISA has released a draft STIG for RHEL 8 and it’s already been incorporated into the SCAP Security Guide (SSG), the open source tool for scanning systems against SCAP definitions. I can’t find the source document but the content was added to the SSG GitHub repo by an official Red Hat account. The file states:…



How to Update to FreeBSD 12.1

On November 4th, 2019, FreeBSD 12.1 was released. This is the first point release for the 12.x branch. It is important to upgrade in a timely manner because security and bugfixes will stop being released for 12.0 approximately 3 months after the release of 12.1, which brings us to early February 2020. If your system…



How to Upgrade to FreeBSD 12.0

On December 11th, 2018, FreeBSD 12.0 was released. This is the first release of the 12.x branch, which has been in testing for well over a year. Don’t fret if your system is still running on the 11 branch – the FreeBSD organization estimates that it’ll be supported until September 2021. However, FreeBSD 10.x has…



How to Upgrade to FreeBSD 11.2

On July 27th, 2018, FreeBSD 11.2 was released. This is the second point release for the 11.x branch. If your system is running 11.0 or 11.1 it is important to upgrade in the near future. 11.0 stopped receiving patches on November 30th, 2017 and 11.1 will stop receiving patches on September 30th, 2018. The legacy…



How to Create a Super Secure SSH Server Tunnel With FreeBSD

Secure SHell, abbreviated SSH, is a versatile and secure tool. The most popular implementation, OpenSSH, was created by the OpenSSH project which is a cousin of FreeBSD. This guide uses FreeBSD as an OS because it’s a bit more user friendly. Although FreeBSD isn’t known to be as secure as OpenBSD, it’s still a very…



How to Upgrade to FreeBSD 11.1

FreeBSD 11.1 was officially released on July 26th, 2017. It’s highly recommended to update to the new version when you can. FreeBSD 11.0 is expected to hit its end-of-life (EoL) on October 26th, 2017. FreeBSD 10.3 is expected to hit its EoL on April 30th, 2018. When a release hits EoL that means no more…



Python iocage With FreeBSD

Overview iocage is one of the most popular jail managers for FreeBSD. Jails are very useful but also difficult to manage. Check out FreeBSD’s documentation for a short primer on jails. In January 2017 iocage was rewritten in Python and released as a beta. It is in very active development and is shaping up to…



ZFS for Busy Sysadmins

ZFS is a filesystem and volume manager combined. This means that you don’t necessarily need to add mountpoints to /etc/fstab if you don’t want to. You don’t even need to create partitions with gpart or makepart if you’re using the whole disk for ZFS. Because swap partitions can’t live in ZFS, a boot disk typically…



How to Install FreeBSD 11.0

Obtaining the installer The FreeBSD 11.0 installers can be found on the official FreeBSD site. Under the heading ‘FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE’, select the architecture of the machine FreeBSD will be installed on. This will typically be ‘amd64’ or ‘i386’ which correspond to the 64-bit and 32-bit versions, respectively. The amd64 version can be installed on Intel…



How to Harden FreeBSD

By default FreeBSD is very secure. Security vulnerabilities in the core OS pop up relatively infrequently. That being said it can still be a good idea to harden FreeBSD and follow best practices to make a FreeBSD install more resilient to malicious activity, especially if it’s a publicly facing server. Patching Like any other OS,…



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